Contrato de Convivência e a Separação de Bens

Muitas vezes casais no procuram aqui no escritório com algumas dúvidas quanto à possibilidade de em uma união estável, regida pela separação convencional de bens e, estabelecida através de contrato de convivência, os conviventes (que em havendo herdeiros e, querendo protegê-los) estipularem nova cláusula de renúncia à herança – então sobre essa situação faremos a seguir algumas ponderações que julgamos poderão colaborar com os receios pertinentes ao tema em questão.

1. Regime da separação convencional de bens na união estável

Mediante contrato de convivência, os conviventes podem optar pela incomunicabilidade total dos bens, o que representa total ausência de regime patrimonial, pois o que existe são acervos separados.

O patrimônio passado, presente e futuro não se comunica, nem durante a união estável e tampouco quando de sua dissolução.

Cada convivente preserva com exclusividade o domínio, a posse e a administração de seus bens, bem como a responsabilidade por suas dívidas anteriores e posteriores à união.

Todavia a escolha desse regime não afasta a obrigação alimentar. Nesse regime existe a possibilidade de serem estipulados alimentos compensatórios, que têm por justificativa o princípio da solidariedade familiar e o caráter indenizatório, já que visa compensar o desequilíbrio econômico que a separação pode ocasionar.

2. Do contrato de convivência

O contrato de convivência está previsto no artigo 1.725 do Código Civil: “Art. 1725 – Na união estável, salvo contrato escrito entre os companheiros, aplica-se às relações patrimoniais, no que couber, o regime da comunhão parcial de bens”.

Esse contrato baseia-se no princípio da autonomia privada e permite aos conviventes que estipulem, livremente, a qualquer tempo (antes, durante ou após o término da união estável), regras patrimoniais específicas e cláusulas de caráter pessoal.

Existe a possibilidade de resguardar o patrimônio particular dos conviventes mediante a estipulação do regime de bens que será adotado para a convivência, o que por sua vez gerará um efeito direto nos futuros direitos sucessórios do companheiro sobrevivente, conforme será exposto mais adiante.

Nula será a convenção violadora de disposição absoluta de lei.

É permitida a modificação do conteúdo contratual, exigindo-se apenas a declaração de ambas as partes. Ademais, por se tratar de negócio jurídico informal, o contrato de convivência pode ser celebrado por escritura particular ou pública, desde que, necessariamente, por escrito.

Todavia, no que se refere a sua eficácia, a doutrina diverge. Alguns autores consideram que os efeitos do contrato de convivência são retro operantes, ou seja, quando da possiblidade de se estipular independente do tempo questões patrimoniais, podem os conviventes agregar efeitos retroativos às questões deliberadas. Outros doutrinadores, defendem que os efeitos são ex nunc, para eles referido negócio jurídico não produzirá efeitos retroativos, ou seja, as relações patrimoniais dos conviventes até a data da celebração do contrato estarão sujeitas às regras do regime de comunhão parcial de bens.

3. Do regime sucessório do convivente a partir do julgamento do STF que declarou a inconstitucionalidade do artigo 1.790 do Código Civil

Após o artigo 1.790 ter sido declarado inconstitucional pelo STF, a tutela sucessória do convivente equiparou-se definitivamente à do cônjuge. Ou seja, aplica-se o artigo 1.829 para as questões sucessórias do convivente sobrevivente.   

“Art. 1.829 – A sucessão legítima defere-se na ordem seguinte:

I – aos descendentes, em concorrência com o cônjuge/convivente sobrevivente, salvo se casado este com o falecido no regime da comunhão universal, ou no da separação obrigatória de bens (artigo 1.640, parágrafo único); ou se no regime da comunhão parcial, o autor da herança não houver deixado bens particulares;

II – aos ascendentes, em concorrência com o cônjuge/convivente;

III – ao cônjuge/convivente sobrevivente;

IV – aos colaterais”.

É assegurado ao convivente sobrevivente o direito de concorrência com os descendentes do autor da herança quando viviam sob o regime da separação convencional de bens ou, se sob a o regime da comunhão parcial ou participação final nos aquestos, o falecido possuísse bens particulares, hipóteses em que a concorrência se restringe a tais bens, devendo os bens comuns (meação) ser partilhados exclusivamente entre os descendentes.

Já na concorrência com os ascendentes, não existe nenhuma ressalva quanto ao regime de bens, assim o convivente sobrevivente concorre com os ascendentes independente do regime adotado, sobre todos os bens, comuns ou particulares.

Todavia essa proteção legal imperativa poderá ser afastada, nesse caso em tela por tratar-se de conviventes que já se casaram anteriormente, com filhos anteriores, ambos bem estabelecidos, com patrimônio e rendas próprias, que não desejam nenhuma comunicação patrimonial, nem mesmo por sucessão hereditária, a fim de se evitar futuro condomínio indesejado, entre o convivente sobrevivente e os filhos de relacionamentos anteriores, poderão aqueles (os conviventes) ter o direito de excluir toda comunicação patrimonial por sucessão causa mortis, no âmbito da autonomia privada, através de renúncia antecipada à herança um do outro.

Apesar de ser quase que unanimidade pela doutrina se considerar nula a manifestação de vontade relativa a direitos hereditários futuros, em face da vedação legal à disposição contratual de herança de pessoa viva de que trata o art. 426 do Código Civil, alguns doutrinadores hoje se contrapõem a essa interpretação acreditando ser possível e perfeitamente válida, a renúncia prévia ao direito concorrencial, quando as partes convencionam em contrato de união estável, que nenhum dos conviventes concorrerá com os descendentes ou ascendentes do outro. Retirando-se, dessa forma, a regra de concorrência estabelecida nos incisos I e II do artigo 1.829 do Código Civil, e que, após aberta a sucessão pelo falecimento de qualquer deles, todo o seu patrimônio reverterá exclusivamente para os respectivos descendentes ou ascendentes.

Ainda, sobre a limitação ao “ajuste sucessório”, ela não é soberana e a interpretação do artigo 426 deve ser restrita, de modo a alcançar somente a proibição expressa na declaração da lei, qual seja, a de se contratar a herança de pessoa viva, sem participação dessa pessoa. Ou seja, o que está expressamente proibido no Código Civil é a cláusula contratual que tenha por objeto a “herança” de pessoa diversa das partes contratantes. 

Ademais, sempre que o Código Civil quer proibir a renúncia a direito futuro, ele o faz expressamente, como no caso do art. 556, que proíbe ao doador renunciar antecipadamente ao direito (futuro) de revogar a doação por ingratidão. Se fosse ínsito ao sistema a impossibilidade de renúncia a direito futuro, a proibição do art. 556 seria desnecessária.

Existem outras situações, de vedações à renúncia de direito futuro, mas claro está que a regra é a sua renunciabilidade, assim como a possibilidade de renúncia à expectativa de um direito.

Quando a lei proíbe os pactos dispositivos ou de hereditate tertii ela também o faz expressamente. Exemplo disso, é o artigo 1.793 do Código Civil que proíbe a cessão de direitos hereditários antes da abertura da sucessão. Todavia, não existe nenhuma disposição que vede a renúncia a direitos hereditários antes da abertura da sucessão.

Não há nada que obste, em regra, a renúncia dos direitos concedidos por lei, salvo se contrariar a ordem pública ou se for em prejuízo de terceiro, o que não ocorre na específica situação do direito à concorrência sucessória do convivente, que não se confunde com a hipótese de ser chamado sozinho à sucessão, como herdeiro único e universal. Assim, validamente renunciável é o direito concorrencial na hipótese em que o convivente é chamado a suceder em conjunto com descendentes ou ascendentes.

Conclusão

Em primeiro plano, correto afirmar que na seara do Direito de Família, muitas vezes as questões a serem tratadas, se tornam cada vez mais particulares e específicas, demandando alternativas de soluções que, talvez não encontrem expressamente um respaldo na lei e, que por não revestir nenhuma hipótese de caráter absoluto, caberá ao julgador o melhor entendimento caso a caso, já que que doutrina e jurisprudência não possuam entendimento pacífico.

Por todo o exposto, conclui-se que, é possível a renúncia prévia de herança em contrato de convivência, levando-se em consideração a autonomia patrimonial da família e, desde que não conteste a ordem pública e nem lese interesse de terceiros.

Para isso deverá os conviventes celebrar o contrato de convivência por escrito ou alterá-lo para constar a renúncia à concorrência sucessória, podendo ser por escritura pública ou particular, sendo dispensada a presença de testemunhas. Contudo, nossa sugestão é que os conviventes optem pela escritura pública.

Vale ressaltar que o contrato de convivência poderá ser celebrado a qualquer tempo (bem como modificado pelos conviventes), mesmo durante a união, exigindo-se para tanto a anuência de ambos os conviventes, não podendo assim decorrer de ato unilateral. Por Ana Paula Picolo Campos. Sócia do escritório Durvalino Picolo Advogados Associados. Especialista em Direito de Família e Sucessões pela Escola Paulista de                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Direito