Namoro qualificado ou união estável?!

Com as mudanças frequentes de comportamento e estilo de vida das pessoas nos tempos atuais, incluindo maior liberdade sexual entre elas, diferenciar o namoro da união estável tornou-se uma das grandes dificuldades a serem pautadas pelos aplicadores do Direito nas diversas demandas judiciais espalhadas pelas Varas de Família afora.   

O artigo 1.723 do Código Civil estabelece que é reconhecida como entidade familiar a união estável entre homem e mulher, configurada na convivência pública, contínua e duradoura e estabelecida com o objetivo de constituição familiar, sem que seja exigido qualquer prazo de convivência preestabelecido.

Como não se exige prazo mínimo para a constituição da união estável, é necessário analisar as circunstâncias caso a caso, reconhecendo se para tanto seus requisitos: duradoura é a que se prolonga no tempo; pública, a que se revela ao grupo social notoriamente; contínua, a que não sofre interrupções, enquanto durar, ou, se as sofre, que não sejam suficientemente numerosas ou prolongadas a ponto de desnaturar o caráter da relação estável.        

E, o mais importante, o que distinguirá os dois institutos, o requisito do animus familiae. No namoro não existe o objetivo de se constituir uma verdadeira família, o relacionamento entre as duas pessoas pode até ser a preparação para a constituição de uma família futura – mas isso não é uma regra – e na união estável, a família já existe. Até porque existem namoros extensos que nunca se transformaram em uma entidade familiar e relacionamentos breves que logo se caracterizaram como união estável.

Um relacionamento afetivo, ainda que público, contínuo e duradouro não será união estável caso não vise a constituição familiar. Será apenas e tão somente um namoro qualificado.

Ainda que haja planos para o futuro, só a intenção da formação de uma família, ainda que regadas por esperanças e fundadas promessas, não é suficiente para a verificação da configuração da união estável.

Para a constituição da união estável, o casal deve manifestar a sua vontade de constituir família, vivendo como se casado fosse e, para tanto, deve se observar a existência de assistência moral e material, recíproca e incondicional; esforço conjunto para concretizar sonhos em comum; participação real nos problemas e desejos do outro…

Ademais, o surgimento de prole não planejada, não descaracteriza o namoro, transformando-o em união estável, ou ainda, os namorados podem morar juntos sob o mesmo teto, por uma questão de economia, sem caracterizar-se uma união estável, bem como, a coabitação, também, não é requisito obrigatório à caracterização da união estável.  

No namoro qualificado não há um “compartilhamento irrestrito de vida”, as duas pessoas ainda mantém vidas próprias e independentes, preserva-se o lado pessoal de cada um, sua liberdade e seus interesses particulares, que por vezes, não se coadunam e não criam quaisquer consequências jurídicas. Não há partilha de bens ou aplicação de regime de bens, fixação de alimentos ou direito sucessório. E, por não se tratar de uma entidade familiar, as questões jurídicas relacionadas ao namoro, como danos causados às pessoas, são discutidas no campo do Direito Comercial ou Obrigacional.

Por todo o exposto, já se observa um amplo exame por parte da nossa doutrina e jurisprudência sobre a prática da elaboração de contratos de namoro visando assegurar a um ou a ambos os namorados que de sua relação amorosa não resultará reconhecimento de configuração de união estável e possíveis efeitos patrimoniais acerca dessa situação.

Os contratos de namoro estão sendo cada vez mais utilizados, a fim de se evitar conflitos causados pela diversidade de interpretações, visto que duas pessoas podem residir sobre o mesmo teto, dormir juntas, partilhar a vida familiar e, ainda assim, sentirem-se vivendo em momentos diversos, para uma pode restar configurado um compromisso sério, condizente a uma união estável e para outra apenas um simples namoro.          

Todavia, a validade dos contratos de namoro é relativa e perde força ante normas de ordem pública indisponíveis e perante os direitos de terceiros de boa-fé.

 

Por Ana Paula Picolo Campos

Especialista em Direito de Família e Sucessões pela Escola Paulista de                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Direito